Of the incidents of violence that were reported by observers, the perpetrators were most likely to be men, regardless of the type of violence observed.
Nigerian elections require voters to be accredited before voting. In Bayelsa, observers deployed by TMG reported slightly more incidents of violence and intimidation against male voters during this process than against female voters.
The forms used by election observers in the Bayelsa state elections included questions for observers about incidents of intimidation, harassment or violence against women. Of the incidents of violence reported by observers, an equal number targeted men and women.
Citizens were also most likely to be the perpetrators in the reported incidents of violence; while men were most likely to perpetrate violence overall, women were also a significant percentage of perpetrators.
Reported incidents of violence were primarily aimed at citizens; that is, Guatemalans who were not candidates, officials, or dedicated party supporters (sympathizers).
Economic violence reported by observers indicated that men were more often targeted by property damage, but that men and women were similarly targeted for other forms of economic violence such as bribery and economic coercion.
Likewise, reported incidents of psychological violence, in particular slander and defamation, were more likely to target men, who were more likely to be running for high-profile local posts, such as mayoral positions.
Men were more likely to be targeted by physical violence than women; this may be because men were more likely to be running for high-profile positions.
Guatemalan law prohibits the sexual exhibition of persons to draw attention to a campaign or political party event. Of incidents of this violence that were reported, women were most likely to be exhibited in this way.
The social benefit programs that had the highest number of reported incidents of coercion also also had the highest percentages of women enrolled, indicating that women were disproportionately impacted by coercion.