Of the incidents of violence against women that were observed at polling stations, 50% of the perpetrators were recorded as being other than polling officials or members of security forces.
As with violence against women candidates, most perpetrators were party supporters.
Perpetrators of violence against women candidates or their supporters were overwhelmingly party supporters, with 75% of reports of violence indicating that party supporters were the perpetrators of incidents.
Of the incidents of violence at rallies that were reported, observers recorded that perpetrators were most frequently party supporters -- supporters were 73% of the reported perpetrators.
Hate speech was an important form of violence that TMG monitored throughout each election. As in Bayelsa, observers stationed in Kogi during the pre-election period reported incidents of both men and women engaging in hate speech.
Overall levels of reported hate speech were small, but during the pre-election observation in Kogi, observers reported that victims of hate speech motivated by their gender, origin, age, religion or physical disabilities were primarily men, with few exceptions.
Hate speech was an important form of violence that TMG monitored throughout each election. In the case of Bayelsa during the pre-election period, observers reported incidents of both men and women engaging in hate speech.
Citizens were also most likely to be the perpetrators in the reported incidents of violence; while men were most likely to perpetrate violence overall, women were also a significant percentage of perpetrators.
Very few incidents of psychological violence occurred -- but where they did, women were more likely to be perpetrators, with little difference in who was targeted.
Women acting alone were a small percentage of the perpetrators of observed incidents of unspecified pre-election violence. Most perpetrators were in mixed-gender groups.