Observed Incidents of Violence
VAW-E can manifest in many forms. Although the types of incidents in each category can vary greatly depending on the country context, they fall into five key categories:
- physical violence
- sexual violence
- psychological violence
- threats and coercion
- economic violence.
This chart shows the types of violence that were observed in each of the countries we studied:
Orange indicates that VAW-E was observed and witnessed.
Red indicates that although observers looked for VAW-E, no VAW-E was observed.
Grey indicates no data was available.
With this visual, we can see clearly that where observers are trained to recognize and report violence against women in elections, they do report it — an important indication that there is a wider picture of violence that we must all work to uncover.
Note: The countries shown in this graphic are (top to bottom): Guatemala, Côte d'Ivoire, Myanmar, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda.