16% of observers reported that they witnessed attacks on women at rallies, while 18% reported that they had heard of such attacks. 67% reported that they had received no reports of violence targeting women at rallies.
The Stop-FIDA hotline received reports of all categories of violence, primarily physical violence and threats and coercion. The reported incidents were evaluated by a response team, to determine what response was needed, and whether the incidents should be referred to another stakeholder, such as the police or a service provider for victim support.
Nigerian elections require voters to be accredited before voting. In Bayelsa, observers deployed by TMG reported slightly more incidents of violence and intimidation against male voters during this process than against female voters.
The forms used by election observers in the Bayelsa state elections included questions for observers about incidents of intimidation, harassment or violence against women. Of the incidents of violence reported by observers, an equal number targeted men and women.
During the national elections, observers deployed by TMG used a critical incident form to provide gender disaggregated data on the incidents of violence they observed. From this data reported, women were 33% of the total victims of reported incidents of election day violence.
On its pre-election observation forms during the national election, TMG required its observers to indicate whether they had witnessed or heard of hate speech, violence or intimidation against candidates or their supporters because of their gender. 83% of observers did not witness or hear of any gender-based violence, but a small percentage did hear reports of acts of violence through credible sources and a few directly witnessed incidents of violence occurring.
Citizens were also most likely to be the perpetrators in the reported incidents of violence; while men were most likely to perpetrate violence overall, women were also a significant percentage of perpetrators.
Reported incidents of violence were primarily aimed at citizens; that is, Guatemalans who were not candidates, officials, or dedicated party supporters (sympathizers).
Men were more likely to be targeted by physical violence than women; this may be because men were more likely to be running for high-profile positions.
Overall, most reported incidents of violence were economic (36%), threats and coercion (30%) or psychological (28%).