Of the incidents of violence that were reported by observers, the perpetrators were most likely to be men, regardless of the type of violence observed.
Likewise, reported incidents of psychological violence, in particular slander and defamation, were more likely to target men, who were more likely to be running for high-profile local posts, such as mayoral positions.
Overall, most reported incidents of violence were economic (36%), threats and coercion (30%) or psychological (28%).
Male office agents were the most frequent victims of the incidents of psychological violence recorded on election day. Women voters, however, were more likely than male voters to be targeted by violent incidents.
As with economic violence, reported incidents of violence showed that women were targeted by psychological violence as part of mixed-gender groups.
Very few incidents of psychological violence occurred -- but where they did, women were more likely to be perpetrators, with little difference in who was targeted.